Jet air 301 60

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion . This broad definition includes airbreathing jet engines ( turbojets , turbofans , ramjets , and pulse jets ). In general, jet engines are combustion engines.

The thrust of a typical jetliner engine went from 5,000 lbf (22,000 N) ( de Havilland Ghost turbojet ) in the 1950s to 115,000 lbf (510,000 N) ( General Electric GE90 turbofan) in the 1990s, and their reliability went from 40 in-flight shutdowns per 100,000 engine flight hours to less than 1 per 100,000 in the late 1990s. This, combined with greatly decreased fuel consumption, permitted routine transatlantic flight by twin-engined airliners by the turn of the century, where before a similar journey would have required multiple fuel stops. [1]

Jet engines date back to the invention of the aeolipile before the first century AD. This device directed steam power through two nozzles to cause a sphere to spin rapidly on its axis. So far as is known, it did not supply mechanical power and the potential practical applications of this invention did not receive recognition. Instead, it was seen as a curiosity.

The Molniya (now Vympel ) R-60 ( NATO reporting name : AA-8 "Aphid" ) is a short-range lightweight infrared homing air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft . It has been widely exported , and remains in service with the CIS and many other nations.

The R-60 was initially developed for the MiG-23 . Work began on the weapon, under the bureau designation K-60 ( izdeliye 62), in the late 1960s. Series production began in 1973. It entered service with the designation R-60 (NATO reporting name "Aphid-A" ).

According to Russian sources, [ which? ] practical engagement range is about 4,000 m (4,400 yd), although "brochure range" is 8 km (5.0 mi) at high altitude . The weapon was up until recently [ when? ] [ clarification needed ] one of the most agile air-to-air missiles, and can be used by aircraft maneuvering at up to 9 g against targets maneuvering at up to 8 g . A tactical advantage is the short minimum range of only 300 m (330 yd).

Boeing 777 ( Triple Seven или T7  — «три семёрки») — семейство широкофюзеляжных пассажирских самолётов для авиалиний большой протяжённости. Самолёт разработан в начале 1990-х , совершил первый полёт в 1994 году , в эксплуатации с 1995 года .

Самолёты этого типа способны вместить от 305 до 550 пассажиров, в зависимости от конфигурации салонов, и имеют дальность полёта от 9,1 до 17,5 тыс. километров. На Boeing 777 установлен абсолютный рекорд дальности для пассажирских самолётов: 21 601 км.

Boeing 777 — самый крупный в мире двухмоторный турбовентиляторный пассажирский самолёт. Двигатели General Electric GE90 , устанавливаемые на нём, являются самыми крупными и самыми мощными в истории авиации газотурбинными двигателями . Отличительной особенностью являются также шестиколёсные стойки шасси.